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ѧާѧ֧ѧڧ

1.1     ާ

ާ - ӧѧاߧ ާ֧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ, ܧ ٧ӧݧ֧ ѧߧӧڧ ڧ٧ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ ܧا, ӧѧا֧ߧڧ ݧڧ, ӧߧ֧ߧ֧ԧ ӧڧէ ӧ֧ ٧ܧ, ا֧, ާڧާڧܧ, ڧڧ֧ܧԧ ߧڧ, ӧݧߧԧ ܧӧ, ֧ܧ֧ߧ ӧէ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ, ߧڧ ԧݧѧ, ٧ҧ, ..
 
ާ ݧ ӧէڧ էߧ֧ӧߧ ӧ֧, ѧ ܧѧ ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧ ӧ֧֧ߧڧ ާا֧ ڧܧѧ٧ڧ ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ӧ֧.

ާ ӧߧ֧ߧ֧ԧ ӧڧէ

 
ߧ֧ߧڧ ӧڧ ֧ݧӧ֧ܧ, ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧڧѧۧܧ ާ֧էڧڧߧ, ߧѧէڧ ֧ߧ ٧ѧӧڧڧާ ߧڧ ӧߧ֧ߧߧڧ ԧѧߧ
 
֧ ֧ݧݧا֧ߧڧ, ڧݧߧ ާ, ҧݧ֧ѧ ٧էӧѧ ܧا, ڧܧѧ ԧէ - ڧѧ ڧ٧ߧѧܧѧާ ٧էӧ.
 
ԧߧѧ ڧߧ ֧ߧߧ ݧ֧ - ڧ٧ߧѧ ٧ѧҧݧ֧ӧѧߧڧ ԧէߧ ܧݧ֧ܧ, ӧݧ էҧݧ ֧ݧ - ڧ֧ߧڧ ֧, ٧ѧէߧ֧ߧڧ ԧڧҧѧߧڧ ѧ٧ԧڧҧѧߧڧ ܧݧ֧ߧ֧ էҧ ߧѧܧݧߧѧ - ݧѧҧݧ֧ߧ اڧݧڧ ѧڧ.
 
ߧ ֧ѧߧڧ է֧֧ڧ֧ ӧڧէ֧֧ݧӧ֧ ߧ֧էѧߧ ٧ѧ ݧڧ٧ ݧѧاߧ.

ѧҧݧէ֧ߧڧ ا֧, ާڧާڧܧ

 
֧, ާڧާڧܧ ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ֧ݧӧ֧ܧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧڧѧۧܧ ާ֧էڧڧߧ ٧ӧݧ ֧ߧڧ اڧ٧ߧ֧ߧߧ ߧ֧ԧڧ (), ߧڧ ܧӧ. ֧ݧӧ֧ ֧է֧ݧקߧߧ ٧ѧҧݧ֧ӧѧߧڧ է֧ݧѧ֧ ڧڧߧ ֧ݧէӧڧا֧ߧڧ ٧ѧߧڧާѧ֧ ڧڧߧ ݧا֧ߧڧ ֧ݧ.
 
ѧڧާ֧: ѧڧ֧ߧ ֧  ߧѧ֧ߧڧ, ӧ֧ѧ֧ ӧӧ ާ, ܧߧѧܧڧ֧ ӧѧ, ҧݧ֧ܧ ԧݧѧ٧ѧ  - ԧӧڧ ڧ ٧ѧڧߧ ڧݧѧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ާ ݧקԧܧ ֧ܧѧߧڧ ٧ѧҧݧ֧ӧѧߧڧ , ߧѧҧ, ܧݧ ӧ٧ԧݧ,  ٧ѧާا֧ߧߧ ާݧ֧ߧڧ, ӧݧ ӧ֧ ߧ ӧ ӧѧ,  ѧӧߧէڧ - ڧ٧ߧѧ اקݧԧ ֧ܧѧߧڧ ٧ѧҧݧ֧ӧѧߧڧ ݧѧҧ ٧ѧڧߧ ڧݧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ާ.
 
֧ڧ ߧ - ѧܧڧӧߧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ާ ߧڧ , ѧڧӧߧ - ߧ. ѧڧާ֧, ѧڧ֧ߧ ѧߧ֧ էӧڧاߧ ݧ֧اѧ֧ ݧا֧ߧڧ ާا֧ ݧ֧ԧܧ ӧ֧ߧ ߧ էԧ ߧ, ӧѧڧӧѧ֧ ԧݧӧ  - ڧߧէ , اѧ ڧ٧ҧߧ ߧѧڧ, է ӧѧڧӧѧ֧, ا֧ݧ ݧ֧اڧ, ا֧ݧ ӧѧڧӧѧ֧ ԧݧӧ - ߧ, ݧ, ߧ֧էѧߧ.

ާ ԧݧѧ

 
ڧѧԧߧڧܧ ӧߧ ާ֧էڧܧ ާߧԧڧ ٧ڧڧ ӧѧէѧ֧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ڧڧէէڧѧԧߧڧܧ: ٧ѧ ߧ ߧڧ֧ ܧ, ѧէاܧ - ֧֧ߧ, ܧݧ֧ - קԧܧڧާ, է ܧݧ֧ - ֧է֧, ӧ֧ܧ - ֧ݧ֧٧קߧܧ. ݧѧ٧ ѧاѧ ߧڧ ӧ֧ اѧ- ԧѧߧ, ҧ֧ߧߧ - ֧֧ߧ. ڧѧ֧, اڧ٧ߧ֧ߧߧѧ  ߧ֧ԧڧ () اڧ٧ߧ֧ߧߧѧ ҧѧߧڧ (اڧ) էߧڧާѧ֧ ӧӧ֧ ԧݧѧ٧ ӧݧ ܧߧޡ  ֧֧ߧ.
 
ݧѧҧѧ ֧ѧܧڧ  ٧ѧܧ ֧ԧ է֧ާѧڧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ߧ ԧѧѧߧڧ اڧ٧ߧ֧ߧߧ ߧ֧ԧڧ  ܧ (ߧѧڧާ֧, ݧէ֧ اڧݧԧ ӧ٧ѧ).
 
ڧ ܧѧߧ ԧݧѧ٧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ ߧ ٧ѧҧݧ֧ӧѧߧڧ,  ӧ٧ӧѧߧߧ ֧ ڧݧ ѧ (ѧ קԧܧڧ), ܧѧߧ ܧݧ֧ѧ - ߧ ԧߧ ֧֧ߧ.
 
ݧҧܧ ٧ѧѧӧڧ ԧݧѧ٧ߧڧѧ ԧݧѧ٧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ ߧ ߧ֧էѧߧ اڧէܧ֧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ާ (ߧ֧էѧ ٧ڧߧ-).
 
ѧڧߧ ڧݧ ҧѧקߧߧ ӧӧ֧ ڧݧ ߧѧڧܧ ԧݧѧ٧, ݧڧקߧߧ ҧݧ֧ܧ, ܧѧ٧ӧѧ ߧ ٧ѧҧݧ֧ӧѧߧڧ ӧݧ֧էӧڧ ֧ ֧֧ߧ.
 
ѧ֧ߧڧ ٧֧ߧڧ ڧ ާ֧֧ߧԧ - ߧ֧էѧ ܧӧ ֧֧ߧ.
 
ݧѧ٧ ߧѧ֧ߧڧާ ѧէѧѧڧ, ߧѧڧާ֧, ٧ѧާ֧էݧ֧ߧߧ ا֧ߧڧ ٧ѧܧ ܧ ӧ֧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ ߧ ߧ֧էѧߧ () ߧ ܧ.
 
ѧڧ֧ߧڧ ٧ѧܧ էݧڧ֧ݧߧ ٧ѧҧݧ֧ӧѧߧڧ  - ڧ٧ѧէӧѧߧߧ اڧ-.
 
ݧҧӧѧ ܧݧ֧ - ߧѧݧڧڧ ҧݧԧ ܧݧڧ֧ӧ  ӧߧ֧ߧߧ֧ԧ ѧ, ߧѧڧާ֧, ާ֧ߧڧߧԧڧ, ߧ֧ӧާߧڧ.
 
ߧۧߧ ܧܧ ԧݧܧѧ ԧݧѧ٧ - ѧ קԧܧڧ.
 
ݧ֧٧֧ߧڧ, ܧ ӧ٧ߧڧܧѧ֧ ӧէ ߧ ݧ ӧ֧֧ - ߧ֧էѧߧ () קԧܧڧ ֧֧ߧ.

ާ

 
֧ڧէڧѧ ܧ ܧӧѧ֧ ҧݧѧ . ާ ߧڧ ݧ ߧ ѧܧӧڧߧ ާاߧ էڧ ߧڧ ܧ
 
ߧڧ ݧ ٧ѧӧڧڧ اڧ٧ߧ֧ߧߧ ߧ֧ԧڧ () ܧ. ֧ ߧܧڧߧڧӧѧߧڧ ܧ - ڧ ݧ, ߧѧ ѧܧӧڧߧ ԧѧ, ݧѧڧߧѧ. ڧ֧ߧڧ ߧѧݧ֧էӧ֧ߧߧ ߧ֧ԧڧ ܧ ӧ٧ߧڧܧѧ֧ ѧ , ٧ӧ ߧڧاѧ֧  ݧ, ܧا ߧ ߧ ѧܧӧڧߧ էҧݧѧ, - ާԧܧڧ.
 
էݧڧ֧ݧߧ ٧ѧҧݧ֧ӧѧߧڧ ڧѧ֧ اڧ٧ߧ֧ߧߧѧ ҧѧߧڧ (اڧ) ܧا ߧ קާߧ  ӧ֧ ߧ ѧܧӧڧߧѧ  ѧߧӧڧ էҧݧ .
 
ߧۧߧ ӧէ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ڧ ӧ٧ӧѧ ڧߧէާ ѧ-ݧѧاߧ ֧֧ߧ ֧ݧߧԧ ٧.
 
ѧҧѧ ӧ֧ߧ ߧ ݧߧ ߧ - ڧߧէ  ֧ ѧ קԧܧڧ.
 
ߧܧ ڧߧէ ߧ֧էѧߧ ߧ ܧ.
 
קާߧѧ ԧݧҧܧѧ ҧ٧է ާ֧اէ ڧӧܧ٧֧ݧܧ ڧӧ٧ѧӧڧܧ ӧڧէ֧֧ݧӧ֧ ߧѧ֧ߧڧ ܧӧ. ҧӧѧ֧ ڧߧѧܧ ާڧܧѧէ, ԧڧ֧ߧڧ֧ܧ ҧݧ֧٧ߧ, ܧ.
 
ݧ - ڧߧէ ݧѧاߧ () ֧ݧ.

ާ ߧ

 
ڧѧ֧, ܧԧҧ اڧ٧ߧ֧ߧߧ ߧ֧ԧڧ ߧѧڧߧѧ֧ ާ֧ڧէڧѧߧ קԧܧڧ, ܧ ܧӧѧ֧ ҧݧѧ ߧ.
 
ߧ֧ߧڧӧߧ  ӧէ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ٧ѧߧ ݧڧ٧ ڧ ߧ - ڧߧէ ӧ٧է֧ۧӧڧ ݧէ ֧, ܧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ߧ էߧ ٧ѧҧݧ֧ӧѧߧڧ, ӧ٧ӧѧߧߧ ӧߧ֧ߧ֧ ڧߧ֧ܧڧ֧.
 
ߧ֧ߧڧӧߧ ӧէ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ڧ ߧ ާߧ, ا֧ݧӧѧ ߧ֧ڧߧ ٧ѧѧ ݧڧ٧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ߧ էߧ ٧ѧҧݧ֧ӧѧߧڧ, ӧ٧ӧѧߧߧ ӧߧ֧ߧ֧ ڧߧ֧ܧڧ֧ ӧ٧է֧ۧӧڧ ѧ ֧ (ߧڧ֧ܧڧ ڧߧڧ, ڧߧڧ).
 
ߧߧ ӧէ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ݧڧ٧ ڧ ߧ ӧڧէ֧֧ݧӧ֧ ӧѧݧ֧ߧڧ ڧէѧߧ ѧ٧ ߧ.
 
٧է, ݧѧڧ֡ ܧݧ ߧ  - ڧߧէ ѧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ ߧ ߧѧ֧ߧڧ ߧ֧ԧڧ () קԧܧڧ ܧ ( ѧާ ڧݧ էܧ).
 
ݧڧ٧ڧ ߧ ֧ߧڧ֧ اѧ ӧڧէ֧֧ݧӧ֧ ߧѧݧڧڧ ֧ ѧ קԧܧڧ.
 
ѧݧا֧ߧߧ ߧ ѧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ߧ ߧ֧էѧߧ ߧѧاߧԧ .
 
ӧ֧֧ߧڧ ڧ ߧ ѧ ٧ߧѧѧ ߧ֧էѧߧ () ߧ קԧܧڧ ӧߧ֧ߧߧڧ  ѧ.
 
ѧߧ ܧߧڧ ߧ ڧݧ ԧ֧֧ - ڧߧէ  ѧ    ֧ݧէܧ    קԧܧڧ.

ާ ԧ, , ٧ҧ էק֧

 
֧ڧէڧѧ ֧ݧ֧٧קߧܧ - էا֧ݧէߧ ا֧ݧ֧٧ ܧӧѧ֧ ҧݧѧ ֧ӧݧ֧ ӧߧ֧ߧߧ-ߧѧاߧ ӧ٧  (ߧ - )    ا֧ݧէܧ
 
ާ֧֧ߧߧ-ܧѧߧ, ҧݧ֧ڧ ԧҧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ ߧ ֧ ߧܧڧߧڧӧѧߧڧ ֧ݧ֧٧קߧܧ, , ߧѧҧ, ҧݧ֧էߧ, ڧ ԧҧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ ߧ ߧ֧էѧߧ ܧӧ.
 
קާߧ-ܧѧߧ ڧ ԧҧ, ڧ ٧ҧ - ӧܧ ֧ާ֧ѧ - ڧ٧ߧѧ ѧ.
 
ҧ קާߧ-ڧߧ֧ԧ ӧ֧ - ܧݧ֧ߧڧ ӧߧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ާ ݧէ, ٧ѧ ܧӧ. ӧ֧ݧ է֧ߧ - ߧ֧էѧߧ ܧӧ, ڧѧߧڧ ܧӧѧڧ էק֧  - ڧݧߧ ѧ ا֧ݧէܧ.
 
֧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ ܧ - ڧߧէ ߧ֧էѧߧ, ٧ѧܧ - ڧߧէ ڧ٧ҧߧ.
 
ݧ֧էߧ է֧ߧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ ߧ է֧ڧڧ ܧӧ.
 
ѧߧ ڧ է֧ߧ ӧݧ ڧ٧ߧѧܧ ԧߧ ا֧ݧէܧ, ӧڧӧѧ֧ԧ ӧӧ֧.
 
ݧ է֧ߧ ֧ߧ ܧӧѧ, ߧ֧֧էܧ ҧӧѧ֧ ڧܧ ٧ҧ, ԧӧڧ ߧ֧էѧߧ ֧ݧ֧٧֧ߧܧ. ԧէ  ӧاէѧ֧ ԧڧ֧֧ާڧ֧, ӧڧէ֧֧ݧӧ֧ ӧ֧اէ֧ߧڧ է ԧߧ֧ ֧ݧէܧ.

ާ ԧݧ ٧ܧ

 
ܧѧߧ֧ߧߧ ݧ֧ԧܧ ӧѧݧקߧߧ ԧݧ ҧ֧ ڧ٧ߧѧܧ اѧݧ ߧ ҧݧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ҧݧڧߧӧ ݧѧ֧ ߧ ӧڧ ӧէ ֧, ӧاէѧ֧֧ էߧڧ֧ ԧߧ (ߧ֧էѧߧ ߧ ܧ).
 
קߧ ܧѧߧ ԧݧ, ӧاէѧѧ ҧݧ֧٧ߧ֧ߧߧ, اקݧ ߧѧݧק, ܧ ߧߧ ҧѧ٧֧ ٧ѧߧӧ, ӧݧ֧ ڧ٧ߧѧܧ ѧ קԧܧڧ ֧ݧէܧ.
 
֧ݧ ߧѧݧק ԧݧ, էߧ էѧݧڧۧ ܧӧѧڧ - ڧ٧ߧѧ էڧ֧ڧ ӧ֧ӧ֧ ߧڧ ѧ קԧܧڧ.
 
֧ݧ ߧ֧ߧڧާѧڧۧ ߧѧݧק ڧݧ ܧӧ ݧ ֧ԧ ߧڧ - ڧ٧ߧѧ էڧ֧ڧ.
 
ާ ٧ܧ.
 
ܧڧѧۧܧ ާ֧էڧڧߧ ڧѧ֧, ٧ ѧاѧ֧ ߧڧ ӧ֧ԧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ާ ާ ٧ܧ ӧݧ֧ էߧڧ ڧ ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ڧקާ ާ ѧڧ֧ߧ ާ֧էڧܧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ.  ӧ֧اէ֧ߧڧ ߧӧѧߧ ߧ ާߧԧӧ֧ܧӧ ߧѧҧݧէ֧ߧڧ ߧѧܧݧ֧ߧߧ էڧѧԧߧڧܧ.
 
ާ ٧ܧ ٧ӧݧ֧ ݧڧ ҧ֧ܧڧӧߧ էѧߧߧ, ܧѧѧڧ֧ ٧ѧҧݧ֧ӧѧߧڧ, .. ֧ߧ ӧ٧ѧ اѧ- ԧѧߧѧާ, اڧ٧ߧ֧ߧߧ ߧ֧ԧڧ֧ , ڧ֧ާ ٧ڧ-, ܧӧ. ֧ڧէڧѧߧ ֧է ֧ݧ֧٧קߧܧ-էا֧ݧէߧ ا֧ݧ֧٧, ܧ, ֧֧ߧ ӧ٧ѧߧ ҧݧѧ ٧ܧ (.1.2.1.). ܧѧاէ اѧ- ԧѧ ӧ٧ѧ ֧է֧ݧקߧߧ ֧ԧ ѧ.
 
٧ ާѧڧӧѧ֧ էߧ֧ӧߧ ӧ֧ ѧݧѧҧݧ֧ߧߧ ӧߧ ߧڧ. ֧ҧէڧާ ڧ٧ҧ֧ԧѧ ߧѧا֧ߧڧ   ӧӧӧѧߧڧ ٧ܧ , ܧѧ ݧ֧էӧڧ,  ڧ٧ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ֧ԧ ܧѧܧ. ӧѧاߧ ާ֧ ݧڧѧ ڧڧߧߧ ܧѧܧ ٧ܧ. ѧ, ߧѧڧާ֧, ܧߧ֧ ާԧ ѧӧڧ ܧڧߧ֧ӧ, ٧֧ݧקߧ .. ߧѧݧק, ާݧܧ - ҧ֧ݧ, ֧ߧڧܧ ӧקܧݧ -  ܧѧߧ-ڧݧ֧ӧ .. ѧܧڧ ҧѧ٧, ٧  ߧ էݧا֧ ާѧڧӧѧ ӧѧ ѧ٧ ݧ ڧקާ ڧ.
 
ާ ٧ܧ ӧѧاߧ ҧѧѧ ӧߧڧާѧߧڧ ܧѧ ߧ ֧ݧ ٧ܧ, ѧ ߧ ߧѧݧק ߧ ٧ܧ. ֧ݧ ٧ܧ ҧѧ٧ӧѧߧ ާѧާ ݧڧ٧ڧѧ ҧݧܧ ٧ܧ ߧѧҧا֧ߧ ֧ ߧܧڧ ܧӧ֧ߧߧ է. ߧާѧݧߧ ߧڧ ٧ ܧ ߧܧڧ  ݧ֧ ҧ֧ݧԧ ߧѧݧק, ڧ ڧ ԧӧ֧ӧڧ ߧڧ֧ҧѧ٧ߧ ܧ (ѧڧݧݧ  ڧݧ֧ާ֧) ԧڧҧէҧߧ ܧ ( ѧڧݧݧ ߧԧڧާ֧). 
 
֧ݧ ٧ܧ  է֧ݧڧ ߧ ѧ: ܧߧڧ ٧ܧ, ֧էߧ ڧݧ ֧ߧѧݧߧѧ ѧ ܧ֧ߧ ٧ܧ. ѧݧק ߧ ٧ܧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ ҧ ݧ ݧا֧ߧڧ ߧ ӧ֧ߧ ٧ܧ.
ӧ٧ ٧ܧ اѧ - ԧѧߧѧާ
 
ާ ٧ܧ ݧ֧է֧ ҧѧѧ ӧߧڧާѧߧڧ ߧ ֧ԧ ӧ֧ݧڧڧߧ, էӧڧاߧ, ӧݧѧاߧ, ܧѧܧ, ߧѧݧڧڧ ֧ڧ. ҧߧ ٧ ާԧܧڧ, ާ֧֧ߧߧ ӧݧѧاߧ, էӧڧا֧ߧڧ ӧҧէߧ, ܧѧܧ ٧ӧѧ, ߧܧڧ ݧ ߧѧݧק.
 
 ާѧݧߧ ӧڧ ٧ܧ ٧ѧӧڧڧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ ԧէ. ѧڧާ֧, ֧ߧ ߧѧݧק ߧ ٧ܧ ߧ, ڧާ֧֧ ҧ֧ݧ ӧڧ, ݧ֧ - ߧѧݧק ݧ ا֧ݧӧѧԧ ӧ֧. ѧܧڧ ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ѧ٧ݧڧڧ ݧ֧է֧ ٧ߧѧ, ҧ ڧ٧ҧ֧اѧ ߧ֧ѧӧڧݧߧԧ էڧѧԧߧڧӧѧߧڧ.

ѧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ڧ٧ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ٧ܧ

 
I.     ܧѧܧ ֧ݧ ٧ܧ
 
      ݧ֧էߧ (ӧ֧ݧ ҧ֧ݧ) ӧ֧ ٧ܧ -  ٧ߧѧڧ֧ݧߧ ӧ֧ݧ֧ ߧާѧݧߧԧ ӧڧէ. ԧӧڧ  ҧݧڧߧӧ ݧѧ֧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ڧߧէާ ܧ٧ԧ֧ߧߧԧ ݧէ ڧݧ ߧ ݧѧҧݧ֧ߧڧ -, .. ߧ֧էѧߧ ܧӧ.
       
      ѧߧ ӧ֧ ٧ܧ - ٧ ӧԧݧէڧ ٧ߧѧڧ֧ݧߧ ֧ާߧ֧, ֧ ߧާѧݧߧ ӧ֧ ٧ܧ. ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ߧ ڧߧէ ѧ.
       
      קާߧ-ܧѧߧ ӧ֧ ٧ܧ  ӧ֧ӧ֧ ߧڧ ֧٧ާ֧ߧԧ ѧ, ֧֧էѧ֧ԧ ӧ֧ߧ ӧ ӧߧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ާ. ҧݧڧߧӧ ݧѧ֧ ӧ٧ӧѧ֧ ڧߧ֧ܧڧߧߧާ ٧ѧҧݧ֧ӧѧߧڧާ. קާߧ-ܧѧߧ ӧ֧ ٧ܧ ݧ էݧڧ֧ݧߧ ҧݧ֧٧ߧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ߧ ڧ֧ߧڧ اڧէܧ ߧ ֧ҧݧѧէѧߧڧ ڧߧէާ ߧ֧էѧߧ. ֧ ֧ާߧ֧ ӧ֧ ٧ܧ, ֧ ڧݧߧ֧ ߧѧ֧ߧڧ, ӧ٧ѧߧߧ ѧ.
 
      ڧݧ֧ӧ ӧ֧ ٧ܧ ާ֧ݧѧۧڧާ ٧ܧѧާ ڧݧ ߧѧާ  ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ߧ ٧ѧ ܧӧ ֧ҧݧѧէѧߧڧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ާ ݧէ, ֧ݧ ٧ ӧݧѧا֧, ڧݧ ֧ҧݧѧէѧߧڧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ާ ѧ, ֧ݧ ٧ ڧݧ ݧ֧ԧܧ ӧݧѧاߧק.
 
II.  ާ, ѧ٧ާ֧ ֧ݧ ٧ܧ
 
      ٧ ѧ٧ާ֧ ҧݧ ݧ ߧާѧݧߧԧ:
 
a)    ܧѧܧ ӧ֧ݧ-ҧ֧ݧѧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ߧ ߧ֧էѧߧ ֧ݧ֧٧קߧܧ ܧ ߧ ڧߧէ ٧ѧ ݧѧاߧ (٧ѧէ֧اܧ  ݧڧ٧);
 
b)   ܧѧܧ ܧѧߧѧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ߧ ߧѧݧڧڧ ӧݧѧاߧԧ ѧ ӧߧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ާ  ڧݧ ߧ ߧѧݧڧڧ ҧݧ ֧֧ߧ ҧݧ֧٧ߧ֧ӧߧԧ ߧѧѧݧ;
 
c)    קާߧѧ ܧѧܧ - ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ߧ ܧڧܧ.
 
      ٧ ѧ٧ާ֧ ߧ ߧާѧݧߧԧ
 
) ܧѧܧ ӧ֧ݧѧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ߧ ߧ֧էѧߧ ܧӧ ڧݧ ߧ֧էѧߧ ֧ݧ֧٧קߧܧ ֧է;
 
) ܧѧܧ קާߧ-ܧѧߧѧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ߧ ߧѧݧڧڧ ѧ ӧߧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ާ ߧѧߧ֧קߧߧ ܧѧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ާ ҧݧ ֧.   ӧݧ֧ ҧݧڧߧӧ ݧѧ֧ ڧ٧ߧѧܧ ֧ק٧ߧԧ ٧ѧҧݧ֧ӧѧߧڧ.
 
      ֧ڧߧ ߧ ٧ܧ
 
֧ڧߧܧ ҧ٧էܧ ߧ ٧ܧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ ߧ ߧ֧էѧ اڧէܧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ާ, ߧ֧էѧߧ ߧ ߧڧا֧ߧڧ ߧܧڧ ܧ, ֧ݧ:
 
                     ) ܧѧܧ ӧ֧ݧѧ, ҧ֧ݧӧѧѧ - ߧ֧էѧߧ ߧ ܧӧ;
                     ) ܧѧܧ קާߧ-ܧѧߧѧ - ڧݧߧ ѧ ӧߧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ާ.
 
اէקߧߧ, ߧ֧ԧݧҧܧڧ, ߧ֧ڧ٧ާ֧ߧڧ֧ ߧ ا֧ߧڧ ߧѧҧݧէ֧ߧڧ ҧ֧٧ҧݧ֧٧ߧ֧ߧߧ ֧ڧߧܧ ڧѧ ߧާ.
 
ߧڧ ٧ܧ
 
ܧڧѧۧܧ ާ֧էڧڧߧ ڧݧ٧ ѧܧڧ ߧڧ ߧڧ ٧ܧ, ܧѧ ٧ ާԧܧڧ, اקܧڧ,  էاѧڧ, קاڧӧڧۧ, ҧ֧ܧۧߧ.
 
ԧܧڧ ٧, ܧ ߧ ާا֧ ӧҧէߧ էӧڧԧѧ, .. ٧ѧߧ اڧݧڧ է ٧ܧ. ߧڧ ߧѧҧݧէѧ֧  էݧڧ֧ݧߧ ٧ѧҧݧ֧ӧѧߧڧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ߧ ߧ֧էѧߧ ܧӧ ߧ֧ԧڧ . ֧ݧ
 
) ܧѧܧ ٧ܧ ܧѧߧѧ, ٧ , ҧ֧ڧݧߧ - ѧ ӧ֧էڧ ߧ;
                ) ܧѧܧ קާߧѧ, ٧ ҧ֧ڧݧߧ - ߧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ާ ڧ٧ѧէӧѧߧ.
 
קܧڧ ٧, ܧ  ߧ ާا֧ ӧҧէߧ էӧڧԧѧ - ߧڧ ڧߧ֧ܧڧߧߧ ٧ѧҧݧ֧ӧѧߧڧ, ӧ٧ѧߧߧ ѧ, ѧ ߧڧܧѧڧ ֧ڧܧѧ. ѧܧ ٧ ѧ ӧ֧ѧ֧ ݧէ֧, ڧѧӧڧ ܧӧڧ٧ݧڧߧڧ ާ٧.
 
اѧڧ ٧ ߧѧҧݧէѧ֧ էݧڧ֧ݧߧ ٧ѧҧݧ֧ӧѧߧڧ, ӧڧҧѧڧ ӧ٧ӧѧߧ ߧ֧էѧߧ ߧ֧ԧڧ ߧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ާ.
 
קاڧӧڧۧ ٧, ܧ֧ߧߧ - ڧ٧ߧѧ ֧ק٧ߧԧ ٧ѧҧݧ֧ӧѧߧڧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ާ, ӧ٧ӧѧߧߧԧ ѧ (٧ӧ ٧) ڧݧ ܧݧ֧ߧڧ֧ ݧڧ٧ ݧѧاߧ (ڧ ӧݧѧاߧ ٧).
 
֧ܧۧߧ ٧, ܧԧէ ѧڧ֧ߧ ҧݧڧ٧ӧѧ֧ ӧ֧ߧ ڧݧ ߧڧاߧ ԧҧ - ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ߧ ѧ ֧է ֧ݧ֧٧קߧܧ, ӧݧ֧ ڧ٧ߧѧܧ ߧѧ֧ߧڧ ٧ѧڧߧ ڧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ާ, ѧܧا ڧԧߧѧݧڧ٧ڧ֧ ڧҧݧڧاѧ֧ާ ڧ է. է֧֧ ѧܧ ٧ - ڧ٧ߧѧ ٧ѧާ֧էݧ֧ߧߧԧ ާӧ֧ߧߧԧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ.
 
III. ѧݧק ߧ ٧ܧ
 
ѧ ا ҧݧ ܧѧ٧ѧߧ ӧ - ٧ ҧߧ ާԧܧڧ, ާ֧֧ߧߧ ӧݧѧاߧ, էӧڧا֧ߧڧ ӧҧէߧ, ܧѧܧ ٧ӧѧ, ߧܧڧ ݧ ߧѧݧק. ѧݧԧڧ ݧ ߧѧݧק ާا֧ ҧ ߧܧڧ ݧ ާ֧ߧ ӧ ӧ֧ ֧֧ߧ ӧݧѧاߧ. ݧ֧է֧ ҧѧڧ ӧߧڧާѧߧڧ ߧ ߧ֧ܧ ݧاߧ ӧݧ֧ߧڧ ڧ٧ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ ߧѧݧק.
 
ѧڧާ֧, ݧ ڧקާ ߧ֧ܧ ܧѧڧ էܧ ߧѧݧק ާا֧ ܧѧڧ ӧ֧ էܧ. ݧ ڧקާ ԧ֧ ڧ ߧѧݧק ߧܧڧ, ܧѧߧԧ ӧ֧. ݧէ֧, ڧ ܧ֧ܧڧ ѧ ѧݧܧԧݧ, - ݧ ݧ ߧѧݧק ֧-اקݧԧ ӧ֧ .. 
 
ӧ֧ ߧѧݧק ߧ ٧ܧ
 
ѧݧק ҧ֧ݧԧ ӧ֧  ӧݧ֧ ڧ٧ߧѧܧ ӧ֧ߧߧԧ ٧ѧҧݧ֧ӧѧߧڧ ާا֧ ҧ ڧ, ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ߧ ڧߧէ ݧէ ӧݧѧاߧ, ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ߧ ڧߧէ ݧէ-ݧѧاߧ. ֧ݧ ߧѧݧק, ӧڧӧ֧ۧ ֧٧ݧѧ ӧ٧է֧ۧӧڧ ӧߧ֧ߧڧ ѧԧ֧ߧߧ ѧܧ (٧ѧҧݧ֧ӧѧߧڧ ܧ٧ԧ֧ߧߧԧ ڧاէ֧ߧڧ), ӧݧ֧ ڧ٧ߧѧܧ ѧا֧ߧڧ קԧܧڧ, ӧ٧ӧѧߧߧԧ ڧߧէާ ݧէ - ֧.
 
ѧݧק اקݧԧ ӧ֧  ӧݧ֧ ڧ٧ߧѧܧ ӧߧ֧ߧߧ֧ԧ ٧ѧҧݧ֧ӧѧߧڧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ߧ ڧߧէ ѧ. ֧ ֧ާߧ֧ اקݧ ֧ߧ ߧѧݧק ߧ ٧ܧ, ֧ ڧݧߧ֧ ߧڧܧߧӧ֧ߧڧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ ҧݧ֧٧ߧ֧ӧߧԧ ߧѧѧݧ, ӧ٧ӧѧߧߧ ѧ. ݧ֧էߧ-اקݧ ֧ߧ - ڧ٧ߧѧ ݧקԧܧԧ ѧ, קާߧ-اקݧ ֧ߧ - ڧ٧ߧѧ ֧٧ާ֧ߧ ڧݧߧԧ ѧ.
 
ѧݧק ߧ ٧ܧ ѧ٧ݧڧѧ֧ ݧڧߧ: ߧܧڧ ߧѧݧק ѧ ӧ֧ԧ  ӧݧ֧ ڧ٧ߧѧܧ ѧا֧ߧڧ קԧܧڧ ֧ ڧݧ ѧ, ݧ ݧ اקݧԧ ߧѧݧק - ڧ٧ߧѧ ѧا֧ߧڧ ֧ݧէܧ ڧ֧ߧڧܧ (ߧߧѧ ٧ѧէ֧اܧ ڧ). ݧѧاߧ ߧѧݧק - ڧ٧ߧѧ ٧ѧէ֧اܧ ӧ ӧߧ֧ߧߧڧ ԧѧߧѧ  ݧѧاߧ-ѧ, ߧѧݧק ܧ-اקݧԧ ӧ֧  - ڧ٧ߧѧ ѧا֧ߧڧ ߧ ѧ, ܧ ٧ѧէ֧اڧӧѧ֧ ֧ݧէܧ ڧ֧ߧڧܧ.
 
ݧ ߧѧݧק קާߧ-֧ԧ ӧ֧ ӧݧѧاߧ,   ӧݧ֧ ڧ٧ߧѧܧ ӧߧ֧ߧߧ֧ԧ ڧߧէާ ԧӧڧ ߧ֧էѧߧ ѧܧ ӧݧ֧էӧڧ ڧ٧ҧܧ ߧ ݧէ ڧݧ ٧ѧէ֧اܧ ӧ ӧߧ֧ߧߧڧ ԧѧߧѧ  ݧէ-ݧѧاߧ. ݧ ߧѧݧק קާߧ-֧ԧ ֧ߧܧ - ֧٧ާ֧ߧ ѧ ڧӧק ߧ֧էѧߧ ߧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ާ.

ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ܧݧڧߧڧ֧ܧѧ ֧ߧܧ ڧ٧ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ٧ܧ ӧߧ ٧ѧѧէߧ ާ֧էڧڧߧ

 
ѧ ا ާ֧ѧݧ ӧ, ߧާѧݧߧ ߧڧ ٧ ҧڧݧߧ ߧѧҧاѧ֧ ֧ ܧӧ֧ߧߧ է. ڧާ֧֧ ܧѧܧ ٧ӧ է ܧѧߧ ܧ ߧܧڧ ݧ֧ ҧ֧ݧԧ ߧѧݧק.
 
ԧݧѧߧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ܧڧѧۧܧڧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ڧ٧ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ ߧѧݧק ߧ ٧ܧ ߧѧէڧ ֧ߧ ӧ٧ ҧڧ ߧڧ֧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ާ:
 
             ֧ݧ ٧ܧ ӧݧ֧ ݧڧ ܧݧڧߧڧ֧ܧڧ ڧ٧ߧѧܧ ֧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ާ ӧէ, .. ڧ ӧ֧ ԧѧߧ ߧ֧ާ ѧާާ ֧ӧާ ާاߧ ֧է֧ݧڧ ߧѧݧ֧ߧڧ ҧ֧ է֧ԧڧէѧѧڧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ާ. ާ֧ߧѧ֧ ݧߧէ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ߧ ٧ܧ ѧߧӧڧ . ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ݧߧէ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ  ѧܧا ӧݧ֧ ڧݧߧ ڧڧ֧ܧ ӧ٧ҧاէ֧ߧڧ, ҧݧ ڧ٧ڧ֧ܧ ߧѧԧ٧ܧ;
 
             ӧ֧ݧڧ֧ߧڧ ֧ݧ ٧ܧ ާا֧ ҧ ڧ-٧ ѧߧާѧݧߧԧ ѧݧѧҧݧ֧ߧڧ ާ ٧ܧ. -٧ ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ է֧اѧߧڧ ֧ڧߧ ݧѧ٧ާ ܧӧ ֧ݧ ٧ܧ ѧߧӧڧ ݧ, ާԧܧڧ ڧ, ҧߧ֧ ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ֧ ҧߧ ܧӧ է֧اڧӧѧ ӧէ. ߧڧاѧ֧ ܧݧݧڧէߧ-ާڧ֧ܧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ اڧէܧ ڧ ܧӧ ѧ֧ ֧ݧ ٧ܧ, ڧӧէڧ ֧ԧ ѧߧڧ, קܧ , ܧѧ ݧ֧էӧڧ, ߧ ܧާܧ ѧܧԧ ٧ܧ ѧ ݧ֧է ٧ҧ;
 
 
             ӧ֧ ߧѧݧק ٧ܧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ ѧߧѧާ-ԧڧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ڧݧ ߧڧ֧ӧڧէߧ ܧ (ڧ ԧӧ֧ӧڧ ܧߧڧܧ). ӧ֧ ݧڧߧ ߧѧݧק ӧݧڧ: ҧѧܧ֧ڧ (ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ӧڧէ ԧڧҧܧ, ڧߧ֧ܧڧߧߧ ٧ѧҧݧ֧ӧѧߧڧ), ߧܧڧߧѧݧߧ ѧۧӧ ֧ݧէܧ ڧ֧ߧڧܧ, էݧڧ֧ݧߧ ڧާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ѧߧڧҧڧڧܧ,  ߧڧ֧ܧڧ ӧѧݧڧ֧ݧߧ ֧, ӧܧѧ ֧ާ֧ѧ, ڧӧէѧ է֧ԧڧէѧѧڧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ާ;
 
             ݧ֧ߧڧ ߧѧݧק ߧ ٧ܧ ӧ٧ӧѧ ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ֧ ާ֧ѧߧڧ֧ܧԧ ֧ߧڧ ڧ ٧, ާا֧ ҧ ާѧݧ ֧ҧݧ֧ߧڧ ڧ ڧݧ ֧ҧݧ֧ߧڧ ֧ ڧ٧ާ֧ݧקߧߧ  ڧݧ اڧէܧ ߧڧ. ݧ ߧѧݧק ߧ ٧ܧ ާا֧ ҧ ݧ֧էӧڧ֧ ӧܧ ֧ާ֧ѧ, ڧӧէ֧ է֧ԧڧէѧѧڧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ާ   ӧ ֧֧է ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ݧߧէ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ, ѧܧا ڧӧէڧ ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ֧֧ߧ ڧܧ ӧ֧ߧ ٧ܧ .
 
 
٧ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ ֧ݧ ٧ܧ ߧѧէڧ ֧ߧ ӧ٧ ܧӧߧѧҧا֧ߧڧ֧:
 
    ا֧ߧڧ ܧӧ֧ߧߧ է  - ާ֧ߧѧ֧ ݧ֧ߧڧ ܧӧ ҧ֧ݧ ߧѧݧק ٧ߧѧѧ֧ ѧߧ֧ާڧ ڧݧ קߧ ѧߧڧ ֧ݧ ٧ܧ;
 
    ѧڧ֧ߧڧ ܧӧ֧ߧߧ է ڧէڧ ܧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧӧ ֧ݧ ٧ܧ ӧ֧ ѧߧӧڧ קާߧ-ܧѧߧ.
 
    ٧ѧ ӧ֧ߧ٧ߧ ܧӧ ֧ݧ ٧ܧ ڧݧ ߧ֧էѧܧ ܧڧݧէ ԧѧߧڧ٧ާ ӧ֧ ֧ݧ ٧ܧ - ֧-ڧݧ֧ӧ
 
     
էڧѧԧߧڧܧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ٧ѧѧէߧ ާ֧էڧڧߧ ާ ٧ܧ ѧܧا ڧէѧ ҧݧ ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ.
 
ѧڧާ֧: ڧڧߧ ڧ٧ߧѧܧ اקݧ ڧߧ֧ܧڧߧߧ ٧ѧҧݧ֧ӧѧߧڧ, ѧܧӧ ٧ѧҧݧ֧ӧѧߧڧ, ҧݧ֧٧ߧ֧ ݧקԧܧڧ, ֧֧ߧ ֧է֧ݧ ߧڧ ٧ܧ (ާ֧ߧѧڧۧ ѧ٧ާ֧ѧ, קާߧ-ܧѧߧ, , ܧ ҧ٧էܧѧާ  ѧڧߧ ӧڧ֧ ߧѧݧק). ܧߧ֧ߧ ѧէڧ ڧ ٧ѧҧݧ֧ӧѧߧڧ ҧݧڧߧӧ ݧѧ֧ ߧѧݧק ߧ ٧ܧ ӧ֧, ѧߧӧڧ ԧݧѧէܧڧ ڧާ֧֧ ܧѧߧ ӧ֧.
 


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